We've been talking a lot about the importance of structured content here in the Asciidoctor community. This is a perfect example of how structured content can be reused in multiple--and, in this case, novel--ways.
The literate build plugin currently reads a Markdown file. I think this leaves the door wide open for someone to demonstrate the suitability of AsciiDoc for this purpose, and even make the plugin more intelligent as a result.
If you're looking for a novel idea to explore between documentation and automation, I think this is a great opportunity. Imagine that this could also be used to automate documentation workflows...self-assembling guides, manuals and websites, for example.
...of course, you could also look into doing the same thing for Travis CI :) So much to explore!